Last week Sebastian Riedel did some mojo testing using Playwright, I encourage you to see his work here. It would have been neat if he'd used my playwright module on CPAN (as it was built to solve this specific problem). He did so in a way which is inside-out from my approach.
That's just fine! TIMTOWTDI is the rule in Perl, after all. For me, this underlines one of the big difficulties for even a small OSS developer; If you build it, nobody will come for years if you don't aggressively evangelize it.
On that front, I've made some progress; playwright-perl got a ++ from at least one other PAUSE author and I got my first ever gratuity for writing open source software thanks to said module. This is a pretty stark contrast from the 100% thankless task of Selenium::Remote::Driver, which is a lot more work to maintain.
This is a good point to segue into talking about Sebastian's article. Therein he mentions that some of the tricks Playwright are using might end up being a maintenance landmine down the road. Having both worked at a place which has maintained patches to upstream software for years at a time and maintained a selenium API client for years I can say with confidence this is less of a problem than selenium has.
The primary trouble with selenium over the years has to do with the fact that it is simply not a priority for any of the browser vendors. The vast majority of issues filed on Selenium::Remote::Driver over the years have been like this one: In essence, the browser vendor issues a broken driver for a release and we either can ignore it as transient or have to add a polyfill if it persists across releases. Selenium::Remote::Driver is more polyfill than client at this point (partially due to the new WC3 selenium standard not implementing much of the older JSONWire spec).
Historically, Chrome has been the biggest repeat offender in releasing broken drivers. However post-layoffs, it appears Mozilla is getting in on this game as well. Add people frequently using drivers of versions which are incompatible with their browser and encountering undefined behavior, and you begin to understand why microsoft decided to micromanage the browsers the way they did in Playwright. In practice, you need this level of control to have your testing framework be less buggy than the system you want to test with it.
In the end, the reason selenium sticks to open protocols is because they don't have the resources to devote to proper maintenance. I regard a firm which maintains patchsets as a positive; this signals they are actually willing to devote resources to maintenance. They would not have written and shipped them had they not been willing to; most especially not at a firm like Microsoft which is well aware of the consequences.
Another huge controversy over the last half-decade was the "Element Overlap" check, which was buggy for years (especially when negative margin was involved) and still can't be turned off reliably. By contrast, Playwright's check is easy to turn off and has always worked correctly. It sounds like Microsoft learned the right lesson instead of being insensitive to the will of the vast majority of users.
The "Upgrade" to the WC3 protocol also removed a great deal of functionality, while giving us less new features than were removed from the JSONWire spec. Back then the drivers were even more unreliable than they are now; The primary point of the standards was to try and find a minimum set of functionality that they could reliably maintain, an effort which is a clear failure at this point.
Microsoft's approach of just letting the browser vendors do their thing and adapt to them rather than demanding they adapt to testers is far better. In my career this always works out the same way. Your life as a developer and tester gets a lot better when you take the software you work with largely as a given.
It's not like the WC3 API gives you anything above and beyond what the JS interpreter can give you, so it makes a lot of sense from a practical perspective. Playwright on the other hand gives you easy access to everything enabled by the DevToolsProtocol on every browser with a unified API. Selenium 4.0 offers the ability to talk to the DevToolsProtocol, but without a unified API. This is why I consider Selenium an obsolete protocol which has been leapfrogged entirely by Playwright.
This is not to say that Selenium does not have some features which are still not met by the Playwright team. In particular the built-in Selenium Grid which has been massively strengthened in Selenium 4.0. This is enabled by it being a server based approach, rather than just a library for talking to the browser.
Obviously, this is quickly solved with but another layer of abstraction. I did precisely that to accomplish the first Playwright client not made by Microsoft. The server-based approach I took would allow me to replicate Selenium's grid functionality in the future with Playwright... but that's probably not needed in our modern era of coverage reporters and containers. That's why my current project Pairwise is aimed at simplifying this workflow specifically.
Back in the JSONWire days, Microsoft UI had the genius idea to unify desktop testing under the Selenium API with WinAppDriver. This unfortunately has been abandoned in favor of making VSCode a world-beater. This was clearly the right move for microsoft, as even I have been largely converted from my vim + tmux workflow. I still think this is an amazing idea, and (if nobody beats me to it) I want to make an equivalent for linux (using XTest) and OSX...and windows, but all using the Playwright API instead.
Playwright also made another design decision which guarantees it will be easy to spread and write clients for. It ships with a machine-readable specification, while Selenium has never (and likely will never do so). Since SeleniumHQ's 4.0 JAR made breaking changes, I decided to make a new client Selenium::Client. I liked the approach of dynamically making classes based upon a spec, and did so for the next generation selenium client. However, this required that I parse the specification document, which was a nontrivial task (see Selenium::Specification).
The intention long-term is to replace the guts of Selenium::Remote::Driver with Selenium::Client to reduce maintenance burden; this will take some time given how difficult it will be to untangle due to the module being a big ball of mud.
The rest of Sebastian's article goes over the practical points of embedding your perl application inside Node to test it. Much of these are the same concerns (ensuring the server is up before testing, bringing it down correctly, ensuring deps) which I had with the server. Similarly, build toolchain issues are about the same either way; you'll have to wrangle both cpan and npm one way or another. In the end it comes down to personal preference; do you want to write Playwright in perl or JS?
For those of you more comfortable in Perl than JS, I think you'll be well served by playwright-perl. Feel free to give it a shot if this sounds like you. If you like it a lot, feel free to send me a gratuity, become a patron, or log some bugs if you don't like it so much.